The dimerisation of cyclooctene (COE) to 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene, a molecule of interest to the fragrance industry, has been achieved using ruthenium catalysts in organic solvents with significantly better selectivities (47-74%) and yields (39-60%) than previously reported (34% and 30%, respectively). Grubbs' first and second generation catalysts, the Hoveyda-Grubbs' catalyst and a phosphonium alkylidene catalyst were tested in a range of organic solvents and ionic liquids (ILs), including 1:1 IL/dichloromethane mixtures and biphasic IL + pentane systems. The best results (74% selectivity, 60% yield) were obtained using Grubbs' first generation catalyst in 1,2-dichloroethane. The formation of trimer, tetramer and other higher molecular mass products were found to be favoured at low catalyst loadings (0.77 mM). Studies of metathesis reactions using 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene as substrate indicated that the monomer-dimer and monomer-trimer reactions are faster than the dimer-dimer reaction. The use of IL media allowed for the recyclability of the catalyst, although a drop in the yield of dimer generally occurred after the first run. Heterogeneized catalysts, where the IL-catalyst system was immobilised onto silica, resulted in fast reactions leading to poor yields of dimer. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Process Chemistry and Technology