Toluene dioxygenase (TDO)-catalysed sulfoxidation, using Pseudomonas putida UV4, was observed for the thiophene substrates 1A-1N. The unstable thiophene oxide metabolites, 6A-6G, 6K-6N, spontaneously dimerised yielding the corresponding racemic disulfoxide cycloadducts 7A-7G, 7K-7N. Dimeric or crossed [4 + 2] cycloaddition products, derived from the thiophene oxide intermediates 6A and 6D or 6B and 6D, were found when mixtures of thiophene substrates 1A and 1D or 1B and 1D were biotransformed. The thiophene sulfoxide metabolite 6B was also trapped as cycloadducts 17 or 18 using stable dienophiles. Preferential dioxygenase-catalysed oxidation of the substituent on the thiophene ring, including exocyclic sulfoxidation (1H-1J) and cis-dihydroxylation of a phenyl substituent (1G and 1N), was also observed. An enzyme-catalysed deoxygenation of a sulfoxide in P. putida UV4 was noticed when racemic disulfoxide cyclo-adducts 7A, 7B and 7K were converted to the corresponding enantioenriched monosulfoxides 8A, 8B and 8K via a kinetic resolution process. The parent thiophene 1A and the 3-substituted thiophenes 1K-1N were also found to undergo ring dihydroxylation yielding the cis/trans-dihydrodiol metabolites 9A and 9K-9N. Evidence is provided for a dehydrogenase-catalysed desaturation of a heterocyclic dihydrodiol (9Kcis/9Ktrans) to yield the corresponding 2,3-dihydroxythiophene (24) as its preferred thiolactone tautomer (23). A simple model to allow prediction of the structure of metabolites, formed from TDO-catalysed bacterial oxidation of thiophene substrates 1, is presented.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 21 Mar 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)