Direct contact heat transfer via injecting volatile liquid in a hot liquid pool: Generation and motion of bubbles

Amol A. Kulkarni*, Vivek V. Ranade

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Direct contact heat transfer via injection of volatile liquid is an effective strategy for removing heat from a viscous liquid pool. The rapid evaporation effectively removes heat and the generated bubbles move quickly to the top surface. In this paper, we present an experimental and phenomenological analysis of the evaporation of a drop in a slightly miscible liquid. The phenomenon was visualized using a two-dimensional transparent experimental set-up with a single inlet at the bottom. The videos were used to estimate bubble dimensions, its rise velocity, distance from the detachment point, and fraction of vapor and the liquid phases in the evaporating drop. The initial drop size, temperature difference between the hot fluid and the low boiling solvent and the nucleation rate governed the rate of change of the drobble (combined entity of drop and bubble) diameter and its rise velocity. A phenomenological model describing transient behavior of drobble (motion and heat transfer) is developed. The transient variation in the interfacial areas for heat transfer and the projected area were found to have effect on the predictions. The model and results will also provide useful basis for extending the work towards better understanding of direct contact heat transfer in viscous systems like polymerization reactors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-432
Number of pages12
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Bubble
  • Direct contact HT
  • Drobble
  • Drop
  • Evaporation
  • Slightly miscible liquids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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