This work reports on direct crystallization of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT) thin films on glass and polymeric substrates, using pulsed thermal processing (PTP). Specifically, xenon flash lamps deliver pulses of high intensity, short duration, broadband light to the surface of a chemical solution deposited thin film, resulting in the crystallization of the film. Structural analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy show the existence of perovskite structure in nano-sized grains (≤5 nm). Local functional analysis by band excitation piezoelectric spectroscopy and electrostatic force microscopy confirm the presence of a ferroelectric phase and retention of voltage-written polarization for multiple days. Based on structural and functional analyses, strategies are discussed for optimization of pulse voltage and duration for the realization of crystalline ferroelectric thin films. For ∼200 nm thick PZT films on glass substrates, 500 μs-long pulses were required for crystallization, starting with 100 pulses at 350 V, 10 or 25 pulses at 400 V and in general lower number of pulses at higher voltages (resulting in higher radiant energy). Overall power densities of > 6.4 kW/cm2 were needed for appearance of peaks corresponding to the perovskite phase in the XRD. Films on glass processed at 350-400 V had a higher degree of 111-oriented perovskite grains. Higher applied radiant energy (through increased pulse voltage or count) resulted in more random and/or partially 001-oriented films. For ∼1 μm-thick PZT films on polymeric substrates, 10 to 25 250 μs-long pulses at voltages ranging between 200 to 250 V, corresponding to power densities of ∼2.8 kW/cm2, were optimal for maximized perovskite phase crystallization, while avoiding substrate damage.
|Journal||Journal of the European Ceramic Society|
|Early online date||21 Jul 2020|
|Publication status||Published - 01 Dec 2020|