Distribution of terminal nerve entry points to the flexor and extensor groups of forearm muscles

M. D. El Din Safwat*, Eiman Abdel Meguid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The motor points of the skeletal muscles, mainly of interest to anatomists and physiologists, have recently attracted much attention from researchers in the field of functional electrical stimulation. The muscle motor point has been defined as the entry point of the motor nerve branch into the epimysium of the muscle belly. Anatomists have pointed out that many muscles in the limbs have multiple motor points. Knowledge of the location of nerve branches and terminal nerve entry points facilitates the exact insertion and the suitable selection of the number of electrodes required for each muscle for functional electrical stimulation. The present work therefore aimed to describe the number, location, and distribution of motor points in the human forearm muscles to obtain optimal hand function in many clinical situations. Twenty three adult human cadaveric forearms were dissected. The numbers of primary nerves and motor points for each muscle were tabulated. The mean numbers and the standard deviation were calculated and grouped in tables. Data analyses were performed with the use of a statistical analysis package (SPSS 13.0). The proximal third of the muscle was the usual part of the muscle that received the motor points. Most of the forearm muscles were innervated from the lateral side and deep surface of the muscle. The information in this study may also be usefully applied in selective denervation procedures to balance muscles in spastic upper limbs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-93
Number of pages11
JournalFolia Morphologica
Issue number2
Early online date09 Mar 2007
Publication statusPublished - 01 May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrical stimulation
  • Muscle motor points

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Endocrinology
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Embryology
  • Histology


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