Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly caused by cigarette smoking and is considered a worldwide preventable chronic illness. Smoking cessation is considered the primary intervention for disease management and nurses should play a major role in assisting patients to stop smoking. Currently there is a lack of professional consensus on how cessation interventions should be evaluated. The vast array of biochemical markers reported in the literature can be confusing and can make the comparisons of results difficult.
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