Although graphene oxide (GO) is leading the way in the biomedical field of 2D materials, nanosized black phosphorus (NBP) has recently come to attention for use in this challenging field. A direct comparison between these two materials, in this context, has never been described. Therefore, in this mini-review, we will critically compare the applications of NBP and GO in cancer therapy. Material functionalisation, biodegradation by design, phototherapy and immunotherapy will be summarised. This work aims to inspire researchers in designing the next generation of safe NBP platforms for cancer treatment, taking advantage of the vast experience gained with GO.