Dynamic grid stability in low carbon power systems with minimum inertia

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The power system transition to large penetrations of renewable generation has become a core target of decarbonisation roadmaps in many countries. However, switching from synchronous to variable inverter-based resources has prompted technical concerns linked to the reduction in system inertia and short circuit levels. This may result in significant deviations in frequency and bus voltages during fault events. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review of power system stability challenges when integrating up to 100% inverter-based resources. The potential solutions from several enabling technologies (i.e., energy storage, controllable loads, wind, solar PV, etc.) are also assessed to mitigate anticipated issues. The review further details the role of grid codes and international standards in maintaining dynamic stability in power systems with extremely high up to 100% variable renewable generation. Finally, discussion and recommendation pathways are provided to inform industries and accelerate a secure power system transition to meet Net Zero targets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-506
Number of pages21
JournalRenewable Energy
Early online date23 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


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