Economical, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter outlines the Economical, Clinical, and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) model as a framework for the multidimensional classification of outcomes. Moving on from the traditional disease-oriented model, the ECHO model ensures that economic and humanistic measures are evaluated, as well as clinical variables. Consideration of all three outcome types is important when evaluating pharmaceutical care interventions through well-designed, rigorous trials.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Pharmacist Guide to Implementing Pharmaceutical Care.
EditorsF Costa, A Alvarez Risco, F van Mil
Publication statusEarly online date - 18 Sep 2018


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