Economical, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes

Heather E. Barry, Carmel M. Hughes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter outlines the Economical, Clinical, and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) model as a framework for the multidimensional classification of outcomes. Moving on from the traditional disease-oriented model, the ECHO model ensures that economic and humanistic measures are evaluated, as well as clinical variables. Consideration of all three outcome types is important when evaluating pharmaceutical care interventions through well-designed, rigorous trials.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Pharmacist Guide to Implementing Pharmaceutical Care
EditorsF Costa, A Alvarez Risco, F van Mil
ISBN (Electronic)9783319925769
ISBN (Print)9783319925752
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2018


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