This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Bauxsol, an artificially neutralised bauxite refinery residue (NBRR), on various properties of cement pastes. It was found that the NBRR does not have any pozzolanic properties and hence cannot be used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. In order to evaluate the effect of adding the product to Portland cement (PC) pastes, fresh properties (i.e. standard consistency and slump), setting time and heat of hydration were measured. In addition, its influence on chemical changes and compressive strength was investigated. It was found that the addition of this NBRR resulted in a decrease in compressive strength beyond 7 days. The setting time decreased with an increase in NBRR content in PC pastes. The rate of heat evolution for NBRR pastes was greater than that of the PC pastes, but a corresponding increase in the quantity of calcium hydroxide was not found. Therefore, it was concluded that unidentified hydration products when Bauxsol was used in PC pastes might have been the reason for the decrease in setting times.