Effect of BESS Response on Frequency and RoCoF During Under Frequency Transients

Paul Vincent Brogan, Robert J. Best, D. John Morrow, Kenneth McKinley, Marek L. Kubik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)
1851 Downloads (Pure)


Battery energy storage system (BESS) services will be of great help when operating power systems at high renewable energy penetrations. This paper demonstrates the requirements for effective frequency and inertia services. Some system operators currently apply scalars to financially reward improved performance. This paper demonstrates a method of validating and improving these scalars by considering the delay time and ramp time of the BESS. The importance of the method used to measure the rate of change of frequency is discussed in the paper. While rate of change of frequency services improve with reduced delivery times, limits are identified where further reductions produce negligible impact. This demonstrates the tangible benefits of a rapid response and that current technology could meet the criteria. A variety of BESS capacities are trialled which demonstrate consistency in performance and the occurrence of diminishing returns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)575-583
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number1
Early online date01 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • battery storage plants
  • delay time
  • frequency response
  • Generators
  • Load modeling
  • Power system stability
  • Power system transients
  • ramp rate
  • renewable energy penetration
  • renewable energy sources
  • Time-frequency analysis
  • Transient analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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