Effect of Loading, Voltage Difference and Phase Angle on the Synchronisation of a Small Alternator

R.J. Best, D.J. Morrow, P.A. Crossley

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9 Citations (Scopus)
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Synchronisation of small distributed generation, 30 kVA–2 MVA, employing salient-pole synchronous machines is normally performed within a narrow range of tolerances for voltage, frequency and phase angle. However, there are situations when the ability to synchronise with non-ideal conditions would be beneficial. Such applications include power system islanding and rapid generator start-up. The physical process and effect of out-of-phase synchronisation is investigated both through simulation and experimental tests on a salient-pole alternator. There are many factors that affect synchronisation, but particular attention is given to synchronisation angle, voltage difference and, as generators will be loaded during islanding, the load angle. The results suggest that it would be acceptable for the maximum synchronisation angle of distributed generation to exceed that of current practice. Interesting observations on the nature of out-of-phase synchronisation are made, including some specific to small salient-pole synchronous machines. Furthermore, recommendations are made for synchronisation under different system conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-542
Number of pages12
JournalIET Electric Power Applications
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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