Effect of MWCNT addition on the thermal and rheological properties of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement

Ross Ormsby, Tony McNally, Christina Mitchell, Peter Halley, Darren Martin, Timothy Nicholson, Nicholas Dunne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites with loadings ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 wt.% were prepared for use as bone cement. Unfunctionalised, carboxyl and amine functionalised MWCNT were used. Thermal properties were characterised in accordance with the International Standard for acrylic cements, ISO 5833:2002. The rate of reaction exotherm generated and thermal necrosis index (TNI) values were calculated. Polymerisation kinetics were characterised using parallel plate rheology and the exotherm during polymerisation was reduced by ˜4–34%, as a consequence of the MWCNT thermal conductivity. The rate of reaction was significantly altered, such that the setting times of the cements were extended (˜3–24%). Consequently, significant decreases in TNI values (ranging from 3% to 99%) were recorded, which could reduce the exothermic temperatures experienced in vivo and therefore prevent the likelihood of polymerising PMMA cement causing thermally-induced bone tissue necrosis. Thermal data was supported by the rheological characterisation results. Onset of polymerisation for PMMA cement exhibited a strong linear increase as a function of MWCNT loading, however, polymer gelation was not affected to the same degree. It is proposed that the chemically functionalised MWCNT altered PMMA bone cement polymerisation kinetics, reducing the rate of polymerisation, and hence, the reaction exotherm.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2893-2904
Number of pages12
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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