Mixtures of cysteine, reducing sugar (xylose or glucose), and starch were extrusion cooked using feed pH values of 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 and target die temperatures of 120, 150, and 180 degreesC. Volatile compounds were isolated by headspace trapping onto Tenax and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighty and 38 compounds, respectively, were identified from extrudates prepared using glucose and xylose. Amounts of most compounds increased with temperature and pH. Aliphatic sulfur compounds, thiophenes, pyrazines, and thiazoles were the most abundant chemical classes for the glucose samples, whereas for xylose extrudates highest levels were obtained for non-sulfur-containing furans, thiophenes, sulfur-containing furans, and pyrazines. 2-Furanmethanethiol and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol were present in extrudates prepared using both sugars, but levels were higher in xylose samples. The profiles of reaction products were different from those obtained from aqueous or reduced-moisture systems based on cysteine and either glucose or ribose.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Food Science
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
Ames, J., Guy, R. C. E., & Kipping, G. J. (2001). Effect of pH and temperature on the formation of volatile compounds in cysteine/reducing sugar/starch mixtures during extrusion cooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(4)(4), 1885-1894. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0012547