PURPOSE. This study evaluated the effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß2 and anti-TGF-ß2 antibody in a rodent model of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). METHODS. An extracapsular lens extraction (ECLE) was performed in 72 Sprague-Dawley rats. At the end of the procedure, 10 µL TGF-ß2 (TGF-ß2-treated group), fetal calf serum (FCS)/phosphate- buffered saline (PBS; FCS/PBS-treated control group), a human monoclonal TGF-ß2 antibody (anti-TGF-ß2-treated group), or a null control IgG4 antibody (null antibody-treated control group) was injected into the capsule. Animals were killed 3 and 14 days postoperatively. Eyes were evaluated clinically prior to euthanatization, then enucleated and processed for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry afterward. PCO was evaluated clinically and histopathologically. Student's t-test and ? were used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS. There were no statistically significant clinical or histopathological differences in degree of PCO between the TGF-ß2- and FCS/PBS-treated groups at 3 and 14 days after ECLE. Nor were there differences between the anti-TGF-ß2- and the null antibody-treated groups, with the exception of the histopathology score for capsule wrinkling 3 days after ECLE (P = 0.02). a-Smooth-muscle actin staining was observed in the lens capsular bag only in areas where there was close contact with the iris. CONCLUSIONS. No sustained effect of TGF-ß2 or anti-TGF-ß2 antibody on PCO was found in rodents at the dose and timing administered in this study. Iris cells may play a role in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition linked to PCO.