Electroacupuncture Promotes Central Nervous System-Dependent Release of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Tatiana E Salazar, Matthew R Richardson, Eleni Beli, Matthew S Ripsch, John George, Youngsook Kim, Yaqian Duan, Leni Moldovan, Yuanqing Yan, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Jared A Smith, Susan McGorray, Alicia L Bertone, Dmitri O Traktuev, Keith L March, Luis M Colon-Perez, Keith G Avin, Emily Sims, Julie A MundJamie Case, Xiaolin Deng, Min Su Kim, Bruce McDavitt, Michael E Boulton, Jeffrey Thinschmidt, Sergio Li Calzi, Stephanie D Fitz, Robyn K Fuchs, Stuart J Warden, Todd McKinley, Anantha Shekhar, Marcelo Febo, Phillip L Johnson, Lung-Ji Chang, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin, Song Lai, Jingfeng Ma, Xinzhong Dong, Fletcher A White, Huisheng Xie, Mervin C Yoder, Maria B Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Electroacupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and GV-14 and GV-20 (humans) and Bai-hui (rats) increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue, whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation. EA-mediated SNS activation was further supported by browning of white adipose tissue in rats. EA treatment of rats undergoing partial rupture of the Achilles tendon resulted in reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, increased serum interleukin-10 levels and tendon remodeling, effects blocked in propranolol-treated rodents. To distinguish the afferent role of the peripheral nervous system, phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of transient receptor potential channels (Pirt)-GCaMP3 (genetically encoded calcium sensor) mice were treated with EA acupuncture points, ST-36 and LIV-3, and GV-14 and Bai-hui and resulted in a rapid activation of primary sensory neurons. EA activated sensory ganglia and SNS centers to mediate the release of MSC that can enhance tissue repair, increase anti-inflammatory cytokine production and provide pronounced analgesic relief. Stem Cells 2017;35:1303-1315.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1303-1315
Number of pages13
JournalStem Cells
Issue number5
Early online date16 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - May 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

© 2017 AlphaMed Press.


  • Achilles Tendon/pathology
  • Acupuncture Points
  • Adipocytes/cytology
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology
  • Adipose Tissue, White/cytology
  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD/metabolism
  • Central Nervous System/cytology
  • Electroacupuncture
  • Forelimb/physiology
  • Hindlimb/physiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperalgesia/therapy
  • Hypothalamus/cytology
  • Interleukin-10/blood
  • Macrophages/cytology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology
  • Mice
  • Nerve Net/physiology
  • Rats
  • Rupture
  • Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism
  • Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism

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