Elucidation of the controlling steps of reactive dyes adsorption on activated carbon

M.A.M. Khraisheh, Y. Al-Degs, Stephen Allen, Mohamad Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

99 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, the rate-limiting steps of reactive dye adsorption onto FS-400 activated carbon were elucidated through the investigation of adsorption kinetics. These studies initially revealed that only 20% of the available adsorption capacity was achieved during the first 6 h of mixing. Kinetic profiles showed that the adsorption process was mainly controlled by external diffusion during the first 30 min of the reaction, after which internal diffusion controlled the process. The interruption test method identified the rate-limiting steps; the results showed that sorption of reactive dyes onto FS-400 was mainly controlled by internal diffusion. Furthermore, the external and internal diffusion coefficients and the desorption rate decreased after the interruption period. The same parameters increased when the solution temperature was raised. The thermodynamic parameters studied showed that the adsorption of reactive dyes onto activated carbon was endothermic and is mainly controlled by internal diffusion with a minor effect of external diffusion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1651-1657
Number of pages7
JournalIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
Volume41 (6)
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2002

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