Energy efficiency optimization in hardware-constrained large-scale MIMO systems

Xinlin Zhang, Michail Matthaiou, Mikael Coldrey, Emil Björnson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

11 Citations (Scopus)


Large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems can bring substantial improvement in spectral efficiency and/or energy efficiency, due to the excessive degrees-of-freedom and huge array gain. However, large-scale MIMO is expected to deploy lower-cost radio frequency (RF) components, which are particularly prone to hardware impairments. Unfortunately, compensation schemes are not able to remove the impact of hardware impairments completely, such that a certain amount of residual impairments always exists. In this paper, we investigate the impact of residual transmit RF impairments (RTRI) on the spectral and energy efficiency of training-based point-to-point large-scale MIMO systems, and seek to determine the optimal training length and number of antennas which maximize the energy efficiency. We derive deterministic equivalents of the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SINR) with zero-forcing (ZF) receivers, as well as the corresponding spectral and energy efficiency, which are shown to be accurate even for small number of antennas. Through an iterative sequential optimization, we find that the optimal training length of systems with RTRI can be smaller compared to ideal hardware systems in the moderate SNR regime, while larger in the high SNR regime. Moreover, it is observed that RTRI can significantly decrease the optimal number of transmit and receive antennas.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 11th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS)
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4799-5863-4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


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