Epidemiology and long-term outcomes of primary congenital glaucoma: a population-based study

Robert John Nutt*, Mohammad Samir Dowlut, Seán Francis McLoone, Eibhlin McLoone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: to establish the incidence, prevalence and long-term outcomes of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in Northern Ireland's general and Irish Traveller (IT) populations over a 59-year period.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: chart review of all PCG cases in Northern Ireland between 1962 and 2020. Incidence and prevalence were calculated with the aid of national population statistics. Long-term outcomes were analysed for eyes with at least 5 years follow up. Visual outcomes were stratified into groups: good-VA ≥ 6/12; moderate-VA 6/12 to 6/60, poor-VA < 6/60. Kaplan-Meier analysis was constructed to determine the probability of eyes retaining a good visual outcome over time. Outcomes of different surgeries were compared with regard to final vision, re-operations and complications.

RESULTS: 57 PCG cases were identified between 1962 and 2020. Overall incidence was 3.4 per 100,000 live births. PCG prevalence in general and IT populations in 2019 was 4.3 per 100,000 and 238 per 100,000, respectively. Sixty eyes had sufficient data for long-term outcome analysis with a mean of 20.5 years follow up, 58% of which had good final visual outcome. Fifty-seven percent of eyes required multiple surgeries. Visual outcomes between trabeculectomies and tubes were comparable; however, there were more serious complications and reoperations associated with tubes.

CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of PCG in NI is similar to Great-Britain and Ireland; however, PCG appears to be particularly prevalent within IT community. Although a good visual outcome can be achieved in the majority of patients, a subset of cases remain challenging to manage despite surgical advances.

Original languageEnglish
Early online date07 Feb 2023
Publication statusEarly online date - 07 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Royal College of Ophthalmologists.


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