Equivalent-circuit model that quantitatively describes domain-wall conductivity in ferroelectric LiNbO3

Manuel Zahn, Elke Beyreuther, Iuliia Kiseleva, Ahmed Lofty, Conor J. McCluskey, Jesi R. Maguire, Ahmet Suna, Michael Rusing, J. Marty Gregg, Lukas M. Eng

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Abstract

Ferroelectric domain wall (DW) conductivity (DWC) can be attributed to two separate mechanisms: (a) the injection/ejection of charge carriers across the Schottky barrier formed at the (metal-)electrode-DW junction and (b) the transport of those charge carriers along the DW. Current-voltage (I -U) characteristics, recorded at variable temperatures from LiNbO 3 (LNO) DWs, are clearly able to differentiate between these
two contributions. Practically, they allow us to directly quantify the physical parameters relevant to the two mechanisms (a) and (b) mentioned above. These are, for example, the resistance of the DW, the saturation current, the ideality factor, and the Schottky barrier height of the electrode-DW junction. Furthermore, the activation energies needed to initiate the thermally activated electronic transport along the DWs canbe extracted. In addition, we show that electronic transport along LNO DWs can be elegantly viewed and interpreted in an adapted semiconductor picture based on a double-diode, double-resistor equivalent-circuit model, the R2D2 model. Finally, our R2D2 model was checked for its universality by successfully fitting the I -U curves of not only z-cut LNO bulk DWs, but equally of z-cut thin-film LNO DWs, and of
x-cut thin-film DWs as reported in literature.
Original languageEnglish
Article number024007
Number of pages10
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 05 Feb 2024

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