One of the key challenges of today’s multicultural schools is the educational gap between immigrant and native youth. By focusing on the Turkish second-generation and natives in Belgium, Sweden, Austria and Germany, this paper aims to describe and explain the educational gap between immigrants and natives with a social psychological approach. (1) In describing the educational gap, longitudinal and comparative analyses in the four European countries indicated a widening gap between immigrant and native schools careers. Even Turkish second-generation students who started at the academic schools are less likely than similar natives to stay on and continue beyond secondary education. To explain this gap, this paper develops an explanatory approach from social identity theory and identity threat research. (2) The quality of intergroup relations, specifically intergroup friendships and teacher support, enhances immigrant school success via reducing identity threat. In contrast, discrimination undermines immigrant school adjustment. (3) Social identity strategies play a key role so that a bicultural identity increases vulnerability to identity threat in schools, where bicultural students are least successful in the presence of discrimination and under situationally-induced stereotype threat. (4) Segregation undermines school success and adjustment via reducing intergroup friendship and increasing discrimination. However, highly-segregated schools, where immigrants are the numerical majority, protect them from discrimination. (5) In hierarchically-stratified school systems like Germany, immigrant students are less successful than in less stratified schools like Sweden. This review paper underlines the significance of an explanatory approach from social identity threat and intergroup relations for understanding immigrant school success.
|Journal||Turk Psikoloji Yazilari (Turkish Psychological Articles)|
|Publication status||Published - 01 Dec 2014|