Evaluating supplemental samples in longitudinal research: Replacement and refreshment approaches

Laura K. Taylor, Xin Tong, Scott E. Maxwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
233 Downloads (Pure)


Despite the wide application of longitudinal studies, they are often plagued by missing data and attrition. The majority of methodological approaches focus on participant retention or modern missing data analysis procedures. This paper, however, takes a new approach by examining how researchers may supplement the sample with additional participants. First, refreshment samples use the same selection criteria as the initial study. Second, replacement samples identify auxiliary variables that may help explain patterns of missingness, and select new participants based on those characteristics. A simulation study compares these two strategies for a linear growth model with five measurement occasions. Overall, the results suggest that refreshment samples lead to less relative bias, greater relative efficiency, and more acceptable coverage rates than replacement samples or not supplementing the missing participants in any way. Refreshment samples also have high statistical power. The comparative strengths of the refreshment approach are further illustrated through a real data example. These findings have implications for assessing change over time when researching at-risk samples with high levels of permanent attrition.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages23
JournalMultivariate Behavioral Research
Early online date02 Jul 2019
Publication statusEarly online date - 02 Jul 2019


  • planned missing data
  • supplemental sample
  • replacement sample
  • refreshment sample
  • longitudinal design


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