Evaluation of a Novel Liquid Fiducial Marker, BioXmark®, for Small Animal Image-Guided Radiotherapy Applications

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BioXmark® (Nanovi A/S, Denmark) is a novel fiducial marker based on a liquid, iodine-based and non-metallic formulation. BioXmark® has been clinically validated and reverse translated to preclinical models to improve cone-beam CT (CBCT) target delineation in small animal image-guided radiotherapy (SAIGRT). However, in phantom image analysis and in vivo evaluation of radiobiological response after the injection of BioXmark® are yet to be reported. In phantom measurements were performed to compare CBCT imaging artefacts with solid fiducials and determine optimum imaging parameters for BioXmark®. In vivo stability of BioXmark® was assessed over a 5-month period, and the impact of BioXmark® on in vivo tumour response from single-fraction and fractionated X-ray exposures was investigated in a subcutaneous syngeneic tumour model. BioXmark® was stable, well tolerated and detectable on CBCT at volumes ≤10 µL. Our data showed imaging artefacts reduced by up to 84% and 89% compared to polymer and gold fiducial markers, respectively. BioXmark® was shown to have no significant impact on tumour growth in control animals, but changes were observed in irradiated animals injected with BioXmark® due to alterations in dose calculations induced by the sharp contrast enhancement. BioXmark® is superior to solid fiducials with reduced imaging artefacts on CBCT. With minimal impact on the tumour growth delay, BioXmark® can be implemented in SAIGRT to improve target delineation and reduce set-up errors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1276
Number of pages14
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 18 May 2020


  • Fiducial markers
  • Radiation response
  • Small animal image-guided radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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