Evaluation of a novel phantom for the quality assurance of a six-degree-of-freedom couch 3D-printed at multiple centres

Hannah Marshall*, Tamil Selvan, Reem Ahmad, Mariana Bento, Catarina Veiga, Gordon Sands, Ciaran Malone, Raymond B King, Catharine H Clark, Conor K McGarry

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)


This study aimed to validate a bespoke 3D-printed phantom for use in quality assurance (QA) of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) treatment couch. A novel phantom design comprising a main body with internal cube structures, was fabricated at five centres using Polylactic Acid (PLA) material, with an additional phantom produced incorporating a PLA-stone hybrid material. Correctional setup shifts were determined using image registration by 3D-3D matching of high HU cube structures between obtained cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) images to reference CTs, containing cubes with fabricated rotational offsets of 3.5°, 1.5° and −2.5° in rotation, pitch, and roll, respectively. Average rotational setup shifts were obtained for each phantom. The reproducibility of 3D-printing was probed by comparing the internal cube size as well as Hounsfield Units between each of the uniquely produced phantoms. For the five PLA phantoms, the average rot, pitch and roll correctional differences from the fabricated offsets were −0.3 ± 0.2°, −0.2 ± 0.5° and 0.2 ± 0.3° respectively, and for the PLA hybrid these differences were −0.09 ± 0.14°, 0.30 ± 0.00° and 0.03 ± 0.10°. There was found to be no statistically significant difference in average cube size between the five PLA printed phantoms, with the significant difference (P < 0.05) in HU of one phantom compared to the others attributed to setup choice and material density. This work demonstrated the capability producing a novel 3D-printed 6DoF couch QA phantom design, at multiple centres, with each unique model capable of sub-degree couch correction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103136
Number of pages11
JournalPhysica Medica
Early online date26 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


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