Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an insulin-releasing hormone clinically exploited for glycaemic control in diabetes, which also confers acute cardioprotection and benefits in experimental/clinical heart failure. We specifically investigated the role of the GLP-1 mimetic, exendin-4, in post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodelling, which is a key contributor to heart failure. Adult female normoglycaemic mice underwent coronary artery ligation/sham surgery prior to infusion with exendin-4/vehicle for 4 weeks. Metabolic parameters and infarct sizes were comparable between groups. Exendin-4 protected against cardiac dysfunction and chamber dilatation post-MI and improved survival. Furthermore, exendin-4 modestly decreased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy/apoptosis but markedly attenuated interstitial fibrosis and myocardial inflammation post-MI. This was associated with altered extracellular matrix (procollagen IαI/IIIαI, connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, TGF-β3) and inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6) gene expression in exendin-4-treated mice, together with modulation of both Akt/GSK-3β and Smad2/3 signalling. Exendin-4 also altered macrophage response gene expression in the absence of direct actions on cardiac fibroblast differentiation, suggesting cardioprotective effects occurring secondary to modulation of inflammation. Our findings indicate that exendin-4 protects against post-MI remodelling via preferential actions on inflammation and the extracellular matrix independently of its established actions on glycaemic control, thereby suggesting that selective targeting of GLP-1 signalling may be required to realise its clear therapeutic potential for post-MI heart failure.