Exploring the use of a gamified intervention for encouraging physical activity in adolescents: A qualitative longitudinal study in Northern Ireland

Rekesh Corepal, Paul Best, Roisin O'Neill, Mark A. Tully, Mark Edwards, Russell Jago, Sarah Miller, Frank Kee, Ruth F. Hunter

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Abstract

Objective: To explore the temporal changes of adolescents’ views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour, and associated processes of behaviour change.
Design: A Qualitative Longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1 year follow-up). The Framework method was used to thematically analyse the data.
Setting: Secondary schools (n=3), Belfast (Northern Ireland).
Participants: A sub-sample (n=19 at 4 time-points) of 12-14 year olds who participated in the StepSmart Challenge, a gamified intervention involving a pedometer competition and material rewards to encourage physical activity behaviour change.
Results: Three core themes were identified: 1) Competition; 2) Incentives and 3) Influence of friends. Participants indicated that a pedometer competition may help initiate physical activity, but suggested that there were a number of barriers such as participants finding it “boring”, and feeling as though they had a remote chance of “winning”. ‘‘Incentives” were viewed favourably, although there were participants who found not winning a prize “annoying”. Friends were a motivator to be more physically active, particularly for girls who felt encouraged to walk more when with a friend.
Conclusions: The intervention in general and specific gamified elements were generally viewed positively and deemed acceptable. Results suggest that gamification may have an important role to play in encouraging adolescents to engage in physical activity, and in creating interventions that are fun and enjoyable. The longitudinal approach added additional depth to the analysis as themes were refined and tested with participants over time. The findings also suggest that gamified Behaviour Change Techniques align well with core concepts of Self-determination Theory, and that various game-elements may require tailoring for specific populations, for example, different genders.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ Open
Early online date20 Apr 2018
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 20 Apr 2018

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Northern Ireland
Longitudinal Studies
Exercise
Motivation
Game Theory
Personal Autonomy
Focus Groups
Reward
Emotions
Population

Cite this

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title = "Exploring the use of a gamified intervention for encouraging physical activity in adolescents: A qualitative longitudinal study in Northern Ireland",
abstract = "Objective: To explore the temporal changes of adolescents’ views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour, and associated processes of behaviour change.Design: A Qualitative Longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1 year follow-up). The Framework method was used to thematically analyse the data.Setting: Secondary schools (n=3), Belfast (Northern Ireland).Participants: A sub-sample (n=19 at 4 time-points) of 12-14 year olds who participated in the StepSmart Challenge, a gamified intervention involving a pedometer competition and material rewards to encourage physical activity behaviour change. Results: Three core themes were identified: 1) Competition; 2) Incentives and 3) Influence of friends. Participants indicated that a pedometer competition may help initiate physical activity, but suggested that there were a number of barriers such as participants finding it “boring”, and feeling as though they had a remote chance of “winning”. ‘‘Incentives” were viewed favourably, although there were participants who found not winning a prize “annoying”. Friends were a motivator to be more physically active, particularly for girls who felt encouraged to walk more when with a friend.Conclusions: The intervention in general and specific gamified elements were generally viewed positively and deemed acceptable. Results suggest that gamification may have an important role to play in encouraging adolescents to engage in physical activity, and in creating interventions that are fun and enjoyable. The longitudinal approach added additional depth to the analysis as themes were refined and tested with participants over time. The findings also suggest that gamified Behaviour Change Techniques align well with core concepts of Self-determination Theory, and that various game-elements may require tailoring for specific populations, for example, different genders.",
author = "Rekesh Corepal and Paul Best and Roisin O'Neill and Tully, {Mark A.} and Mark Edwards and Russell Jago and Sarah Miller and Frank Kee and Hunter, {Ruth F.}",
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T1 - Exploring the use of a gamified intervention for encouraging physical activity in adolescents: A qualitative longitudinal study in Northern Ireland

AU - Corepal, Rekesh

AU - Best, Paul

AU - O'Neill, Roisin

AU - Tully, Mark A.

AU - Edwards, Mark

AU - Jago, Russell

AU - Miller, Sarah

AU - Kee, Frank

AU - Hunter, Ruth F.

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N2 - Objective: To explore the temporal changes of adolescents’ views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour, and associated processes of behaviour change.Design: A Qualitative Longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1 year follow-up). The Framework method was used to thematically analyse the data.Setting: Secondary schools (n=3), Belfast (Northern Ireland).Participants: A sub-sample (n=19 at 4 time-points) of 12-14 year olds who participated in the StepSmart Challenge, a gamified intervention involving a pedometer competition and material rewards to encourage physical activity behaviour change. Results: Three core themes were identified: 1) Competition; 2) Incentives and 3) Influence of friends. Participants indicated that a pedometer competition may help initiate physical activity, but suggested that there were a number of barriers such as participants finding it “boring”, and feeling as though they had a remote chance of “winning”. ‘‘Incentives” were viewed favourably, although there were participants who found not winning a prize “annoying”. Friends were a motivator to be more physically active, particularly for girls who felt encouraged to walk more when with a friend.Conclusions: The intervention in general and specific gamified elements were generally viewed positively and deemed acceptable. Results suggest that gamification may have an important role to play in encouraging adolescents to engage in physical activity, and in creating interventions that are fun and enjoyable. The longitudinal approach added additional depth to the analysis as themes were refined and tested with participants over time. The findings also suggest that gamified Behaviour Change Techniques align well with core concepts of Self-determination Theory, and that various game-elements may require tailoring for specific populations, for example, different genders.

AB - Objective: To explore the temporal changes of adolescents’ views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour, and associated processes of behaviour change.Design: A Qualitative Longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1 year follow-up). The Framework method was used to thematically analyse the data.Setting: Secondary schools (n=3), Belfast (Northern Ireland).Participants: A sub-sample (n=19 at 4 time-points) of 12-14 year olds who participated in the StepSmart Challenge, a gamified intervention involving a pedometer competition and material rewards to encourage physical activity behaviour change. Results: Three core themes were identified: 1) Competition; 2) Incentives and 3) Influence of friends. Participants indicated that a pedometer competition may help initiate physical activity, but suggested that there were a number of barriers such as participants finding it “boring”, and feeling as though they had a remote chance of “winning”. ‘‘Incentives” were viewed favourably, although there were participants who found not winning a prize “annoying”. Friends were a motivator to be more physically active, particularly for girls who felt encouraged to walk more when with a friend.Conclusions: The intervention in general and specific gamified elements were generally viewed positively and deemed acceptable. Results suggest that gamification may have an important role to play in encouraging adolescents to engage in physical activity, and in creating interventions that are fun and enjoyable. The longitudinal approach added additional depth to the analysis as themes were refined and tested with participants over time. The findings also suggest that gamified Behaviour Change Techniques align well with core concepts of Self-determination Theory, and that various game-elements may require tailoring for specific populations, for example, different genders.

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DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019663

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JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

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