Factor Structure of the CES-D and Measurement Invariance Across Gender in Mainland Chinese Adolescents

Mengcheng Wang, Cherie Armour, Yan Wu, Fen Ren, Xiongzhao Zhu, Shuqiao Yao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The primary aim was to examine the depressive symptom structure of Mainland China adolescents using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Design: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were simultaneously conducted to determine the structure of the CES-D in a large scale, representative adolescent samples recruited from Mainland China. Multigroup CFA (N = 5059, 48% boys, mean = 16.55±1.06) was utilized to test the factorial invariance of the depressive symptom structure, which was generated by EFA and confirmed by CFA across gender. Results: The CES-D can be interpreted in terms of 3 symptom dimensions. Additionally, factorial invariance of the new proposed model across gender was supported at all assuming different degrees of invariance. Conclusion: Mainland Chinese adolescents have specific depressive symptom structure, which is consistent across gender.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966-979
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • CES-D
  • Chinese adolescent
  • Depressive symptom
  • Factor structure
  • Factorial invariance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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