Factor structure of the International Trauma Questionnaire in UK Armed Forces veterans residing in Northern Ireland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
122 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD) was recently included in the revised International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2018). C-PTSD is a new trauma related disorder which may develop after prolonged and multiple exposures to trauma. It is a sister disorder of PTSD and is further characterized by symptomatology of disorganized self-organization (DSO). To qualify for the diagnosis, individuals must first meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, then report DSO symptoms and functional impairment. A body of work is emerging which has focused on the underlying dimensionality of C-PTSD across both adult and more recently adolescent populations from differing index trauma groups and from across several nations and cultures. However, few studies have been conducted in populations exposed to combat trauma despite the obvious prolonged and multiple nature of their trauma histories. Objective: To contribute to emerging evidence of the factor structure of ICD-11 C-PTSD in a novel population. Methods: This is the first factor analytic study to explore C-PTSD in a sample of UK Armed Forces veterans residing in Northern Ireland (N = 732). C-PTSD was measured via the ITQ and we utilized CFA to assess the fit of 7 competing models. Results: Based on established CFA fit indices, a correlated, first order, 6-factor model of C-PTSD, representing 3 PTSD and 3 DSO symptom groupings, was deemed to provide superior fit to the data compared to 6 alternative C-PTSD models. The superiority of the model was further supported by statistical comparisons of competing C-PTSD models. All factor loadings (0.866–0.998) and inter-factor correlations (.746-.975) of the optimally fitting model were statistically significant and high. Conclusion: These results provide support for the construct validity of ICD-11 C-PTSD in a unique sample of Armed Forces veterans residing in Northern Ireland.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1924954
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychotraumatology
Issue number1
Early online date17 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the Forces in Mind Trust for funding the Northern Ireland Veterans’ Health and Well-being Study. The funders had no role in the study design or publication of results.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • PTSD
  • Compex PTSD
  • Factor Analysis
  • ICD-11
  • International Trauma Questionnaire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Factor structure of the International Trauma Questionnaire in UK Armed Forces veterans residing in Northern Ireland'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this