Factorial design modelling of mix proportion parameters of underwater composite cement grouts

Mohammed Sonebi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


There is an increasing need to identify the rheological properties of cement grout using a simple test to determine the fluidity, and other properties of underwater applications such as washout resistance and compressive strength. This paper reviews statistical models developed using a factorial design that was carried out to model the influence of key parameters on properties affecting the performance of underwater cement grout. Such responses of fluidity included minislump and flow time measured by Marsh cone, washout resistance, unit weight, and compressive strength. The models are valid for mixes with 0.35-0.55 water-to-binder ratio (W/B), 0.053-0.141% of antiwashout admixture (AWA), by mass of water, and 0.4-1.8% (dry extract) of superplasticizer (SP), by mass of binder. Two types of underwater grout were tested: the first one made with cement and the second one made with 20% of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) replacement, by mass of binder. Also presented are the derived models that enable the identification of underlying primary factors and their interactions that influence the modelled responses of underwater cement grout. Such parameters can be useful to reduce the test protocol needed for proportioning of underwater cement grout. This paper attempts also to demonstrate the usefulness of the models to better understand tradeoffs between parameters and compare the responses obtained from the various test methods that are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1553-1560
Number of pages8
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiwashout admixture
  • Flow time
  • Minislump
  • PFA
  • SP
  • Underwater grout
  • Washout resistance
  • Water/binder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Factorial design modelling of mix proportion parameters of underwater composite cement grouts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this