Muhammed Basheer, F.R. Montgomery, A Long

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)


    It is widely accepted that concrete designed to perform satisfactorily in adverse environmental conditions must have a high cement content and a low water-cement ratio. In addition, in order to enhance its durability, many types of additive and admixture such as super-plasticizers, fly ash, silica fume, ggbfs, etc., have been used in the past. However, a close study of the published literature indicates that the effect of mix variables on the durability and the interaction between the various ingredients are not fully understood. Some of these apparent contradictions are due to the limitations in the design of the experimental programme. For instance, it is evident that relatively higher concentrations of aggregates increase the tortuosity of the flow path and hence reduce the permeability, which results in an improvement in the durability. Therefore, an increase in cement content without a proportional decrease in water-cement ratio may reduce the durability. In such cases, the interactive effects of factors can be established by resorting to a properly designed experimental programme, such as the factorial experimental design.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)449-462
    Number of pages14
    JournalProceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 1994


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