Factors influencing pertussis and influenza vaccination uptake during pregnancy in Northern Ireland

Sarah Milligan, Christopher Cardwell, Jillian Johnston, Adele Graham, Declan Bradley

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Vaccination during pregnancy is an effective public health intervention; however there is suboptimal uptake in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to understand factors influencing vaccination uptake during pregnancy.


There were 22,066 eligible women with delivery dates between 8th August 2017 and 13th June 2018. We used routinely collected information including self-reported vaccination status. Using separate logistic regression analyses we calculated odds ratios (ORs, and 95% confidence intervals, CIs) for influenza or pertussis vaccine uptake by categories of demographic and service delivery factors, before and after adjustment for confounders.


Pertussis vaccination status was available for 84% (n=18,544) and influenza vaccination status for 87.5% (n=19,304) of those eligible, with uptake of 64.8% for pertussis and 51.7% for influenza. In separate multivariable analyses with each of influenza and pertussis vaccination status as the dependent variable, unvaccinated women had highest odds of being aged 20-24, separated, born outside Northern Ireland, to have booked at later gestation and to smoke during pregnancy. Women who did not receive pertussis vaccination were more likely to be of mixed ethnicity (OR 2.63 [1.10 -6.67], p=0.034) or divorced (OR 3.60 [1.11-14.29], p=0.04).

For both influenza and pertussis vaccine, vaccinated women were more likely to live in a less deprived area, and to have had a planned pregnancy. Women who received influenza vaccination were more likely to be employed (OR 1.14, [1.02-1.28], p=0.02). Increasing gravidity was associated with lower odds of pertussis vaccination, but higher odds of influenza vaccination.


We identified factors associated with vaccination uptake, which will help inform initiatives to improve uptake. By being more aware of the needs of pregnant women, we will use these findings to improve the accessibility and quality of public health measures to improve vaccination uptake in Northern Ireland.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 09 Apr 2019
EventPublic Health Research and Science Conference 2019: Application of scientific methods to improve and protect health - University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Duration: 09 Apr 202010 Apr 2020


ConferencePublic Health Research and Science Conference 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


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