Fault Diagnosis in Internal Combustion Engines Using Nonlinear Multivariate Statistics

Uwe Kruger, Geoffrey McCullough, D. Antory, George Irwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a statistical-based fault diagnosis scheme for application to internal combustion engines. The scheme relies on an identified model that describes the relationships between a set of recorded engine variables using principal component analysis (PCA). Since combustion cycles are complex in nature and produce nonlinear relationships between the recorded engine variables, the paper proposes the use of nonlinear PCA (NLPCA). The paper further justifies the use of NLPCA by comparing the model accuracy of the NLPCA model with that of a linear PCA model. A new nonlinear variable reconstruction algorithm and bivariate scatter plots are proposed for fault isolation, following the application of NLPCA. The proposed technique allows the diagnosis of different fault types under steady-state operating conditions. More precisely, nonlinear variable reconstruction can remove the fault signature from the recorded engine data, which allows the identification and isolation of the root cause of abnormal engine behaviour. The paper shows that this can lead to (i) an enhanced identification of potential root causes of abnormal events and (ii) the masking of faulty sensor readings. The effectiveness of the enhanced NLPCA based monitoring scheme is illustrated by its application to a sensor fault and a process fault. The sensor fault relates to a drift in the fuel flow reading, whilst the process fault relates to a partial blockage of the intercooler. These faults are introduced to a Volkswagen TDI 1.9 Litre diesel engine mounted on an experimental engine test bench facility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-258
Number of pages16
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Fault Diagnosis in Internal Combustion Engines Using Nonlinear Multivariate Statistics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this