This chapter discusses that the theoretical studies, using both atomistic and phenomenological approaches, have made clear predictions about the existence and behaviour of ferroelectric (FE) vortices. Effective Hamiltonians can be implemented within both Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast to the effective Hamiltonian method, which is atomistic in nature, the phase field method employs a continuum approach, in which the polarization field is the order parameter. Properties of FE nanostructures are largely governed by the existence of a depolarization field, which is much stronger than the demagnetization field in magnetic nanosystems. The topological patterns seen in rare earth manganites are often referred to as vortices and yet this claim never seems to be explicitly justified. By inspection, the form of a vortex structure is such that there is a continuous rotation in the orientation of dipole vectors around the singularity at the centre of the vortex.
- ferroelectric nanostructures, ferroelectric vortices, Hamiltonian method, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo method, phase field method