Fiducial Marker Guided Prostate Radiotherapy: A Review

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Abstract

Image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is an essential tool in the accurate delivery of modern radiotherapy techniques. Prostate radiotherapy positioned using skin marks or bony anatomy may be adequate for delivering a relatively homogenous whole pelvic radiotherapy dose but these are not reliable when using reduced margins, dose escalation or hypo-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Fiducial markers (FMs) for prostate IGRT have been in use since the 1990's. They require surgical implantation and provide a surrogate for the position of the prostate gland. A variety of FMs are available and they can be used in a number of ways. This review aims to establish the evidence for using prostate FMs in terms of feasibility, implantation procedures, types of FMs used, FM migration, imaging modalities used and the clinical impact of FMs. A search strategy was defined and a literature search was carried out in Medline. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied which resulted in 50 papers being included in this review. The evidence demonstrates that FMs provide a more accurate surrogate for the position of the prostate than either external skin marks or bony anatomy. A combination of FM alignment and soft tissue analysis is currently the most effective and widely available approach to ensuring accuracy in prostate IGRT. FM implantation is safe and well tolerated. FM migration is possible but minimal. Standardisation of all techniques and procedures in relation to the use of prostate FMs is required. Finally a clinical trial investigating a non-surgical alternative to prostate FMS is introduced.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Radiology
Volume89
Early online date23 Sep 2016
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 23 Sep 2016

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