Fluence dependence of the surface roughness of InP after N2 + bombardment

Johan B. Malherbe*, N. G. Van Der Berg, F. Claudel, S. O S Osman, R. Q. Odendaal, F. Krok, M. Szymonski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

InP(1 0 0) surfaces were sputtered under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by 5 keV N2+ ions at an angle of incidence of 41° to the sample normal. The fluence, φ, used in this study, varied from 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1018 N2+ cm-2. The surface topography was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the lower fluences (φ ≤ 5 × 1016 N2+ cm-2) only conelike features appeared, similar in shape as was found for noble gas ion bombardment of InP. At the higher fluences, ripples also appeared on the surface. The bombardment-induced topography was quantified using the rms roughness. This parameter showed a linear relationship with the logarithm of the fluence. A model is presented to explain this relationship. The ripple wavelength was also determined using a Fourier transform method. These measurements as a function of fluence do not agree with the predictions of the Bradley-Harper theory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)533-538
Number of pages6
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Volume230
Issue number1-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Apr 2005

Fingerprint

bombardment
surface roughness
fluence
Surface roughness
Noble Gases
Ultrahigh vacuum
Surface topography
Ion bombardment
Inert gases
Field emission
Topography
Atomic force microscopy
Fourier transforms
ripples
Ions
topography
Wavelength
Scanning electron microscopy
logarithms
ultrahigh vacuum

Keywords

  • AFM
  • Bombardment-induced ripples
  • Indium phosphide
  • InP
  • Ion bombardment
  • Nano-technology
  • Nitrogen bombardment
  • Sputter cones
  • Surface morphology
  • Topography

Cite this

Malherbe, Johan B. ; Van Der Berg, N. G. ; Claudel, F. ; Osman, S. O S ; Odendaal, R. Q. ; Krok, F. ; Szymonski, M. / Fluence dependence of the surface roughness of InP after N2 + bombardment. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2005 ; Vol. 230, No. 1-4. pp. 533-538.
@article{dd4ed7a11c4b48f1a30dc4445152cf27,
title = "Fluence dependence of the surface roughness of InP after N2 + bombardment",
abstract = "InP(1 0 0) surfaces were sputtered under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by 5 keV N2+ ions at an angle of incidence of 41° to the sample normal. The fluence, φ, used in this study, varied from 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1018 N2+ cm-2. The surface topography was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the lower fluences (φ ≤ 5 × 1016 N2+ cm-2) only conelike features appeared, similar in shape as was found for noble gas ion bombardment of InP. At the higher fluences, ripples also appeared on the surface. The bombardment-induced topography was quantified using the rms roughness. This parameter showed a linear relationship with the logarithm of the fluence. A model is presented to explain this relationship. The ripple wavelength was also determined using a Fourier transform method. These measurements as a function of fluence do not agree with the predictions of the Bradley-Harper theory.",
keywords = "AFM, Bombardment-induced ripples, Indium phosphide, InP, Ion bombardment, Nano-technology, Nitrogen bombardment, Sputter cones, Surface morphology, Topography",
author = "Malherbe, {Johan B.} and {Van Der Berg}, {N. G.} and F. Claudel and Osman, {S. O S} and Odendaal, {R. Q.} and F. Krok and M. Szymonski",
year = "2005",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.nimb.2004.12.096",
language = "English",
volume = "230",
pages = "533--538",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms",
issn = "0168-583X",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-4",

}

Fluence dependence of the surface roughness of InP after N2 + bombardment. / Malherbe, Johan B.; Van Der Berg, N. G.; Claudel, F.; Osman, S. O S; Odendaal, R. Q.; Krok, F.; Szymonski, M.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 230, No. 1-4, 01.04.2005, p. 533-538.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluence dependence of the surface roughness of InP after N2 + bombardment

AU - Malherbe, Johan B.

AU - Van Der Berg, N. G.

AU - Claudel, F.

AU - Osman, S. O S

AU - Odendaal, R. Q.

AU - Krok, F.

AU - Szymonski, M.

PY - 2005/4/1

Y1 - 2005/4/1

N2 - InP(1 0 0) surfaces were sputtered under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by 5 keV N2+ ions at an angle of incidence of 41° to the sample normal. The fluence, φ, used in this study, varied from 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1018 N2+ cm-2. The surface topography was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the lower fluences (φ ≤ 5 × 1016 N2+ cm-2) only conelike features appeared, similar in shape as was found for noble gas ion bombardment of InP. At the higher fluences, ripples also appeared on the surface. The bombardment-induced topography was quantified using the rms roughness. This parameter showed a linear relationship with the logarithm of the fluence. A model is presented to explain this relationship. The ripple wavelength was also determined using a Fourier transform method. These measurements as a function of fluence do not agree with the predictions of the Bradley-Harper theory.

AB - InP(1 0 0) surfaces were sputtered under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by 5 keV N2+ ions at an angle of incidence of 41° to the sample normal. The fluence, φ, used in this study, varied from 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1018 N2+ cm-2. The surface topography was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the lower fluences (φ ≤ 5 × 1016 N2+ cm-2) only conelike features appeared, similar in shape as was found for noble gas ion bombardment of InP. At the higher fluences, ripples also appeared on the surface. The bombardment-induced topography was quantified using the rms roughness. This parameter showed a linear relationship with the logarithm of the fluence. A model is presented to explain this relationship. The ripple wavelength was also determined using a Fourier transform method. These measurements as a function of fluence do not agree with the predictions of the Bradley-Harper theory.

KW - AFM

KW - Bombardment-induced ripples

KW - Indium phosphide

KW - InP

KW - Ion bombardment

KW - Nano-technology

KW - Nitrogen bombardment

KW - Sputter cones

KW - Surface morphology

KW - Topography

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14744297811&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.12.096

DO - 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.12.096

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:14744297811

VL - 230

SP - 533

EP - 538

JO - Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms

JF - Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms

SN - 0168-583X

IS - 1-4

ER -