Fullerol C60(OH)24 Nanoparticles and Drought Impact on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during Growth and Infection with Aspergillus flavus

Tihomir Kovač, Tihana Marček, Bojan Šarkanj, Ivana Borišev, Maja Ižaković, Katarina Jukić, Ante Lončarić, Tamara Krska, Michael Sulyok, Rudolf Krska

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Fullerol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles (FNP)-wheat-A. flavus interaction outcome is more complicated in the presence of drought. This study sheds light on how the presence of FNP affects food and feed safety from the perspective of mycotoxin contamination. The study aims to determine the influence of FNP at environmentally plausible concentrations on wheat growth under drought stress and on the aggressiveness of A. flavus during wheat germination, as well as the influence of FNP on the secondary metabolite profile during the inappropriate wheat storage. The co-occurrence of drought and FNP inhibited germination and shoot growth, while an application of FNP alone had no negative effect on plant growth. Wheat pre-treated with FNP showed a concentration dependent resistance pattern to A. flavus aggressiveness. Nevertheless, using a LC-MS/MS based multi-mycotoxin method, six secondary fungal metabolites: 3-nitropropionic acid (<LOD −775.7336 ± 10.7752 ng mL−1), aflatoxin B1 (<LOD −6.78 ± 0.43 ng mL−1) and B2 (<LOD −0.07 ± 0.00 ng mL−1), aflatoxicol (<LOD −0.37 ± 0.16 ng mL−1), kojic acid (<LOD −1337.87 ± 189.04 ng mL−1), and O-methylsterigmatocystin (<LOD −0.17 ± 0.00 ng mL−1), were detected. FNP affected secondary metabolism of A. flavus during inappropriate wheat storage and increased the concentration of secondary metabolites in a concentration-dependent pattern (3-nitropropionic acid and kojic acid). In addition, aflatoxicol production was provoked in FNP treated samples
Original languageEnglish
Article number236
Pages (from-to)e236
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Fungi
Issue number3
Early online date22 Mar 2021
Publication statusEarly online date - 22 Mar 2021


  • Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3251
  • drought
  • fullerol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles
  • mycotoxins
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


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