Functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees is codetermined by past and current environmental factors

Alejandro Ordonez, Jens-Christian Svenning

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Abstract

Modern and historical climate are known to codetermine broad-scale species richness and composition patterns in temperate regions. Nonetheless, is poorly understood the extent to which these effects individually or in combination determine functional diversity, many studies have simply assumed equilibrium between current climate and functional diversity. We estimated functional richness (FRich) and dispersion (FDisp) of North American broad-leaved trees by combining distribution and trait information. Then, we determined if contemporary water-energy availability, current topographic variability, historical climatic stability, and lagged immigration from glacial refugia co-determined the functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees. We did this by assessing the directionality, magnitude, and relative importance of various contemporary and historical environmental factors know to affect species diversity. Contrasts were performed across all North America (Mexico, United States, and Canada), and areas within this region that were glaciated or ice-free during the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 000 yr ago). FRich and FDisp showed distinct geographic patterns that are strongly associated with both contemporary environmental conditions and glacial–interglacial climate change. Model averaged regression coefficients and AIC-based variable relative importance estimates show that contemporary productivity (FRich-wAIC: 1.0; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), annual precipitation (FRich-wAIC: 0.81; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), and accessibility to glacial refugia (FRich-wAIC: 0.92; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0) have the strongest associations to FRich and FDisp. Furthermore, the association of functional diversity with topographic heterogeneity showed steeper slopes in ice-free regions. These findings suggest that, contrary to the expectation climate-diversity equilibrium, functional diversity of North America broad-leaved trees is codetermined by current climate and lagged immigration from glacial refugia.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere01237
JournalEcosphere
Volume7
Issue number2
Early online date29 Feb 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016

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environmental factor
refugium
climate
immigration
ice
Last Glacial Maximum
accessibility
broad-leaved tree
species diversity
species richness
environmental conditions
productivity
climate change
energy
water
North America

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title = "Functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees is codetermined by past and current environmental factors",
abstract = "Modern and historical climate are known to codetermine broad-scale species richness and composition patterns in temperate regions. Nonetheless, is poorly understood the extent to which these effects individually or in combination determine functional diversity, many studies have simply assumed equilibrium between current climate and functional diversity. We estimated functional richness (FRich) and dispersion (FDisp) of North American broad-leaved trees by combining distribution and trait information. Then, we determined if contemporary water-energy availability, current topographic variability, historical climatic stability, and lagged immigration from glacial refugia co-determined the functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees. We did this by assessing the directionality, magnitude, and relative importance of various contemporary and historical environmental factors know to affect species diversity. Contrasts were performed across all North America (Mexico, United States, and Canada), and areas within this region that were glaciated or ice-free during the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 000 yr ago). FRich and FDisp showed distinct geographic patterns that are strongly associated with both contemporary environmental conditions and glacial–interglacial climate change. Model averaged regression coefficients and AIC-based variable relative importance estimates show that contemporary productivity (FRich-wAIC: 1.0; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), annual precipitation (FRich-wAIC: 0.81; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), and accessibility to glacial refugia (FRich-wAIC: 0.92; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0) have the strongest associations to FRich and FDisp. Furthermore, the association of functional diversity with topographic heterogeneity showed steeper slopes in ice-free regions. These findings suggest that, contrary to the expectation climate-diversity equilibrium, functional diversity of North America broad-leaved trees is codetermined by current climate and lagged immigration from glacial refugia.",
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year = "2016",
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doi = "10.1002/ecs2.1237",
language = "English",
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Functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees is codetermined by past and current environmental factors. / Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian.

In: Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 2, e01237, 02.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees is codetermined by past and current environmental factors

AU - Ordonez, Alejandro

AU - Svenning, Jens-Christian

PY - 2016/2

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N2 - Modern and historical climate are known to codetermine broad-scale species richness and composition patterns in temperate regions. Nonetheless, is poorly understood the extent to which these effects individually or in combination determine functional diversity, many studies have simply assumed equilibrium between current climate and functional diversity. We estimated functional richness (FRich) and dispersion (FDisp) of North American broad-leaved trees by combining distribution and trait information. Then, we determined if contemporary water-energy availability, current topographic variability, historical climatic stability, and lagged immigration from glacial refugia co-determined the functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees. We did this by assessing the directionality, magnitude, and relative importance of various contemporary and historical environmental factors know to affect species diversity. Contrasts were performed across all North America (Mexico, United States, and Canada), and areas within this region that were glaciated or ice-free during the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 000 yr ago). FRich and FDisp showed distinct geographic patterns that are strongly associated with both contemporary environmental conditions and glacial–interglacial climate change. Model averaged regression coefficients and AIC-based variable relative importance estimates show that contemporary productivity (FRich-wAIC: 1.0; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), annual precipitation (FRich-wAIC: 0.81; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), and accessibility to glacial refugia (FRich-wAIC: 0.92; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0) have the strongest associations to FRich and FDisp. Furthermore, the association of functional diversity with topographic heterogeneity showed steeper slopes in ice-free regions. These findings suggest that, contrary to the expectation climate-diversity equilibrium, functional diversity of North America broad-leaved trees is codetermined by current climate and lagged immigration from glacial refugia.

AB - Modern and historical climate are known to codetermine broad-scale species richness and composition patterns in temperate regions. Nonetheless, is poorly understood the extent to which these effects individually or in combination determine functional diversity, many studies have simply assumed equilibrium between current climate and functional diversity. We estimated functional richness (FRich) and dispersion (FDisp) of North American broad-leaved trees by combining distribution and trait information. Then, we determined if contemporary water-energy availability, current topographic variability, historical climatic stability, and lagged immigration from glacial refugia co-determined the functional diversity of North American broad-leaved trees. We did this by assessing the directionality, magnitude, and relative importance of various contemporary and historical environmental factors know to affect species diversity. Contrasts were performed across all North America (Mexico, United States, and Canada), and areas within this region that were glaciated or ice-free during the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 000 yr ago). FRich and FDisp showed distinct geographic patterns that are strongly associated with both contemporary environmental conditions and glacial–interglacial climate change. Model averaged regression coefficients and AIC-based variable relative importance estimates show that contemporary productivity (FRich-wAIC: 1.0; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), annual precipitation (FRich-wAIC: 0.81; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0), and accessibility to glacial refugia (FRich-wAIC: 0.92; FDisp-wAIC: 1.0) have the strongest associations to FRich and FDisp. Furthermore, the association of functional diversity with topographic heterogeneity showed steeper slopes in ice-free regions. These findings suggest that, contrary to the expectation climate-diversity equilibrium, functional diversity of North America broad-leaved trees is codetermined by current climate and lagged immigration from glacial refugia.

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VL - 7

JO - Ecosphere

JF - Ecosphere

SN - 0046-1237

IS - 2

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