The Consideration of Future Consequences construct has been found to relate meaningfully to several positive outcomes in temporal research. Researchers have proposed 1-factor, 2-factor, and bifactor solutions to the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS). Using 313 British University undergraduates, we tested four competing models: (a) a 12-item unidimensional model, (b) a model fitted for two uncorrelated factors (CFC-Immediate and CFC-Future), (c) a model fitted for two correlated factors (CFC-I and CFC-F), and (d) a bifactor model. Results supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the two hypothesized factors are better understood as grouping factors. Accordingly, the present study supports the CFCS as a unidimensional global future orientation measure. These results have important implications for the study of future orientation using the CFCS. Researchers using the CFCS are encouraged to examine a bifactor solution for the scores.
- Bifactor modelling
- Consideration of future consequences scale
- Exploratory structural equation modelling
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