Galactic bulge planetary nebulae show evidence of mixed chemistry with emission from both silicate dust and PAHs. This mixed chemistry is unlikely to be related to carbon dredge up, as third dredge-up is not expected to occur in the low mass bulge stars. We show that the phenomenon is widespread, and is seen in 30 nebulae out of our sample of 40. A strong correlation is found between strength of the PAH bands and morphology, in particular, the presence of a dense torus. A chemical model is presented which shows that hydrocarbon chains can form within oxygen-rich gas through gas-phase chemical reactions. We conclude that the mixed chemistry phenomenon occurring in the galactic bulge planetary nebulae is best explained through hydrocarbon chemistry in an UV-irradiated, dense torus.
|Title of host publication||IAU Symposium 283, Planetary Nebulae: An Eye to the Future|
|Number of pages||4|
|Publication status||Published - 30 Aug 2012|
Guzmán-Ramírez, L., Zijlstra, A., Níchuimín, R., Gesicki, K., Lagadec, E., Millar, T. J., & Woods, P. M. (2012). Galactic Bulge PNe: Carbon molecules in oxygen-rich environments. In IAU Symposium 283, Planetary Nebulae: An Eye to the Future (pp. 259-262) https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743921312011052