Aims - To investigate whether young people with Type 1 diabetes have an increased rate of depression andantidepressant use and whether their risk varies by age group, time from diabetes diagnosis, calendar period ofdiagnosis or complications status. Methods - A cohort of incident cases of patients with Type 1 diabetes diagnosed before 35 years of age (n = 5548) wasidentified within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and individually age and sex matched with up to two controlsubjects without diabetes (n = 10 657). Patients with depression were identified through general practice-recordeddepression codes and antidepressant prescriptions. Cox regression models gave hazard ratios for depression in peoplewith Type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects. Results - People with Type 1 diabetes were twice as likely to have a record of antidepressant use and generalpractice-diagnosed depression as their matched control subjects (hazard ratio 2.08, 95% CI 1.73–2.50, P < 0.001).These associations varied by time from diagnosis, with marked increases observed within the first 5 years of diagnosis(hazard ratio 2.14, 95% CI 1.51–3.03, P < 0.001), and by age at diabetes diagnosis, with excesses noted even in the 10-to 19-year age group (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.06–1.98, P = 0.02). Conclusions - This population-based study shows that people with Type 1 diabetes have higher rates of generalpractice-recorded depression and antidepressant use. The excess is present within 5 years of diabetes diagnosis,suggesting psychological input for patients is warranted in the early years of their condition.