Genetic and epigenetic associations with post-transplant diabetes mellitus

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Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication of solid organ transplantation. PTDM prevalence varies due to different diabetes definitions. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of PTDM have been published based on random blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The task of diagnosing PTDM continues to pose challenges, given the potential for diabetes to manifest at different time points after transplantation, thus demanding constant clinical vigilance and repeated testing. Interpreting HbA1c levels can be challenging after renal transplantation. Pre-transplant risk factors for PTDM include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, ethnicity (e.g., African-Caribbean or South Asian ancestry), and genetic risk factors. Risk factors for PTDM include immunosuppressive drugs, weight gain, hepatitis C, and cytomegalovirus infection. There is also emerging evidence that genetic and epigenetic variation in the organ transplant recipient may influence the risk of developing PTDM. This review outlines many known risk factors for PTDM and details some of the pathways, genetic variants, and epigenetic features associated with PTDM. Improved understanding of established and emerging risk factors may help identify people at risk of developing PTDM and may reduce the risk of developing PTDM or improve the management of this complication of organ transplantation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number503
Number of pages20
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2024


  • association
  • diabetes
  • epigenetics
  • genetics
  • methylation
  • PTDM
  • risk
  • SNP
  • transplant


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