Genetic renal abnormalities

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Inherited disorders of renal structure and function are relatively common causes of end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. A family history of haematuria, urinary tract infection or renal failure can alert the clinician to the possible diagnosis of underlying renal genetic abnormalities. In practice, the commonest inherited renal disorder is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), characterized by multiple kidney cysts associated with hypertension and renal failure. Insights into the cell biology of ADPKD are informing new therapeutic approaches to limit cyst growth and prevent progressive renal failure. Non-visible haematuria is a clinical finding that presents a diagnostic challenge because it has so many possible causes. Mutations in the genes encoding collagen proteins within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) can disrupt its normal barrier function. Thin basement membrane nephropathy, caused by GBM collagen gene mutations, is a relatively common cause of familial haematuria that normally has a good long-term prognosis. Alport syndrome is a rare and genetically heterogeneous condition leading to renal failure in men inheriting the X-linked gene defect. Single-gene defects may cause diverse renal tubular disorders, such as predisposition to renal calculi, diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis or hypertension with associated electrolyte imbalance. Gene mutations responsible for familial renal cancer syndromes, such as tuberous sclerosis complex and von Hippel–Lindau disease, have also been identified
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-349
Number of pages7
Issue number6
Early online date23 May 2011
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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