The genetic variation existing in a set of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landrace samples recently collected in Morocco was estimated. Two kinds of genetic markers, seed storage proteins (hordeins) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), were used. Only six out of 31 landraces were subjected to RAPD analysis. Both kinds of markers, RAPD and storage proteins, yielded similar results, showing that the level of variation observed in Moroccan barley was high: all landraces showed variability; 808 different storage protein patterns (multilocus associations) were observed among 1897 individuals (2.32 seeds per association, on average) with an average of 43 multilocus associations per accession. In general, genetic variation within accessions was higher than between accessions. The 100 polymorphic RAPD bands generated by 21 effective primers were able to generate enough patterns to differentiate between uniform cultivars and even between individuals in variable accessions. One of the aims of this work was to compare the effectiveness of RAPD versus storage protein techniques in assessing the variability of genetic resource collections. On average hordeins were more polymorphic than RAPDs: they showed more alternatives per band on gels and a higher percentage of polymorphic bands, although RAPDs supply a higher number of bands. Although RAPD is an easy and standard technique, storage protein analysis is technically easier, cheaper and needs less sophisticated equipment. Thus, when resources are a limiting factor and considering the cost of consumables and work time, seed storage proteins must be the technique of choice for a first estimation of genetic variation in plant genetic resource collections.