New-onset diabetes after transplantation is a common complication that reduces recipient survival. Research in renal transplant recipients has suggested that pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction, as opposed to insulin resistance, may be the key pathologic process. In this study, clinical and genetic factors associated with new-onset diabetes after transplantation were identified in a white population. A joint analysis approach, with an initial genome-wide association study in a subset of cases followed by de novo genotyping in the complete case cohort, was implemented to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation. Clinical variables associated with the development of diabetes after renal transplantation included older recipient age, female sex, and percentage weight gain within 12 months of transplantation. The genome-wide association study identified 26 SNPs associated with new-onset diabetes after transplantation; this association was validated for eight SNPs (rs10484821, rs7533125, rs2861484, rs11580170, rs2020902, rs1836882, rs198372, and rs4394754) by de novo genotyping. These associations remained significant after multivariate adjustment for clinical variables. Seven of these SNPs are associated with genes implicated in ß-cell apoptosis. These results corroborate recent clinical evidence implicating ß-cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of new-onset diabetes after transplantation and support the pursuit of therapeutic strategies to protect ß cells in the post-transplant period.