Background: Prostate cancer incidence rates vary 25-fold worldwide. Differences in PSA screening are largely, but not entirely, responsible. We examined geographic differences in prevalence of histologic prostate inflammation and subsequent prostate cancer risk.
Methods: Seven thousand nonHispanic white men were enrolled in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial from Europe (n = 4,644), North America (n = 1,746), South America (n = 466), and Australia/New Zealand (n = 144). Histologic inflammation in baseline negative prostate biopsies was classified as chronic (lymphocytes/macrophages) or acute (neutrophils). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between region and prostate inflammation, and between region and prostate cancer risk at 2-year biopsy.
Results: Prevalence of prostate inflammation varied across region, with broadly similar patterns for acute and chronic inflammation. Relative to Europe, prevalence of acute inflammation was higher in North America [odds ratio (OR), 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.51-2.08] and Australia/New Zealand (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.06). Men from these regions had lower prostate cancer risk than Europeans at biopsy. Among North Americans, prevalence of acute inflammation was higher in Canada versus the United States (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.07-1.83), but prostate cancer risk did not differ between these regions. Among Europeans, prevalence of acute inflammation was lower in Northern and Eastern (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97 and OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.87, respectively), relative to Western Europe, and these men had higher prostate cancer risk at biopsy.
Conclusions: Prevalence of histologic prostate inflammation varied by region. Geographic differences in prostate inflammation tracked inversely with geographic differences in prostate cancer risk.Impact: Characterization of premalignant prostate biology and the relationship with subsequent prostate cancer risk could inform prostate cancer prevention efforts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(7); 783-9. ©2018 AACR.