Germanium has been bonded to both single crystal Al2O 3 (sapphire) as well as fine grain Al2O3. A germanium to sapphire bonding energy of 3 J/m2 has been measured after a 200 °C bond anneal. Micro voids formed between the germanium/sapphire interface can be removed by employing an interfacial layer of silicon dioxide on either surface. Patterning the sapphire into a grid pattern prior to bonding creates an escape path for trapped gas or moisture allowing micro void free direct bonding to be achieved. Modifying the surface of the fine grain Al2O3 surface with a polycrystalline silicon deposition and polish creates a surface, having an rms roughness (measured over a 250© m2 area), of 1.5nm, suitable for bonding. Techniques employed in the germanium sapphire bonding can then be used in the bonding of fine grain A12O3 to germanium. © The Electrochemical Society.