Germanium (Ge) does not grow a suitable oxide for MOS devices. The Ge/dielectric interface is of prime importance to the operation of photo-detectors and scaled MOSTs. Therefore there is a requirement for deposited or bonded dielectric materials. MOS capacitors have been formed on germanium substrates with three different dielectric materials. Firstly, a thermally grown and bonded silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer, secondly, SiO2 deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD ‘silox’, and thirdly a hafnium oxide (HfO2) high-k dielectric deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ge wafers used were p-type 1 0 0 2 O cm. C–V measurements have been made on all three types of capacitors to assess the interface quality. ALD HfO2 and silox both display acceptable C–V characteristics. Threshold voltage and maximum and minimum capacitance values closely match expected values found through calculation. However, the bonded SiO2 has non-ideal C–V characteristics, revealing the presence of a high density of interface states. A H2/N2 post metal anneal has a detrimental effect on C–V characteristics of HfO2 and silox dielectrics, causing a shift in the threshold voltage and rise in the minimum capacitance value. In the case of hafnium dioxide, capacitor properties can be improved by performing a plasma nitridation of the Ge surface prior to dielectric deposition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials