Germanium on sapphire

Harold Gamble, Paul Baine, Haydn Wadsworth, Yee Low, Paul Rainey, Frederick Ruddell, Mervyn Armstrong, David McNeill, Neil Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
25 Downloads (Pure)


This paper explores the potential of germanium on sapphire (GeOS) wafers as a universal substrate for System on a Chip (SOC), mm wave integrated circuits (MMICs) and optical imagers. Ge has a lattice constant close to that of GaAs enabling epitaxial growth. Ge, GaAs and sapphire have relatively close temperature coefficients of expansion (TCE), enabling them to be combined without stress problems. Sapphire is transparent over the range 0.17 to 5.5 µm and has a very low loss tangent (a) for frequencies up to 72 GHz. Ge bonding to sapphire substrates has been investigated with regard to micro-voids and electrical quality of the Ge back interface. The advantages of a sapphire substrate for integrated inductors, coplanar waveguides and crosstalk suppression are also highlighted. MOS transistors have been fabricated on GeOS substrates, produced by the Smart-cut process, to illustrate the compatibility of the substrate with device processing. © 2008 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-814
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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