Germanium on Sapphire By Wafer Bonding

Paul Baine, Harold Gamble, Mervyn Armstrong, David McNeill, Neil Mitchell, Yee Low, Paul Rainey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


This paper describes the creation of a germanium on sapphire platform, via wafer bonding technology, for system-on-a-chip applications. Similar thermal coefficients of expansion between germanium (5.8 x 10-6 K-1) and sapphire (5 x 10-6 K-1) make the bonding of germanium to sapphire a reality. Germanium directly bonded to sapphire results in microvoid generation during post bond annealing. Inclusion of an interface layer such as silicon dioxide layer by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, prior to bonding, results in a microvoid free bond interface after annealing. Grinding and polishing of the subsequent germanium layer has been achieved leaving a thick germanium on sapphire (GeOS) substrate. Submicron GeOS layers have also been achieved with hydrogen/helium co-implantation and layer transfer. Circular geometry transistors exhibiting a field effect mobility of 890 cm2/V s have been fabricated onto the thick germanium on sapphire layer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1840-1844
Number of pages5
JournalSolid State Electronics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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