Ginkgo biloba L. shells-based adsorbent for the removal of Cu2 + and Cd2 + from aqueous solution: Kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics and mechanisms

Zhanghong Wang, Dekui Shen*, Fei Shen, Chunfei Wu, Sai Gu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)


A large amount of Ginkgo biloba L. shells are produced from the well-developed Ginkgo biloba L. industries in China. The shell can be exploited as a low-cost and renewable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals. In this work, physicochemical properties of Ginkgo biloba L.-based adsorbent (GS) were firstly characterized using composition analysis, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption of Cd2 + and Cu2 + using the produced GS was tested under various process conditions and the mechanisms studies were carried out. GS exhibited a typical feature of lignocellulosic biomass, containing 38.92% of cellulose, 26.14% of hemicellulose and 28.34% of lignin. Surface functional groups such as C[dbnd]O, [sbnd]OH, [sbnd]NH, [sbnd]C[dbnd]N and C[dbnd]C were observed and exposed on the rough and irregular surface of GS. In addition, minerals such as alkali and alkaline earth metals were discovered in the matrix of GS. The adsorption of Cu2 + and Cd2 + could be well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-first order model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd2 + and Cu2 + was estimated to be 21.58 and 42.59 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. Ion exchanges and complexation driven by minerals and surface functional groups were significantly responsible for the adsorption of Cu2 + and Cd2 + using the prepared GS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-611
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Molecular Liquids
Early online date23 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sep 2017


  • Adsorption
  • Cd ion
  • Cu ion
  • Ginkgo biloba L. shells
  • Mechanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

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